Vol. 32 Núm. 1 (2016)
Artículos originales

Records of epigeal spiders in Bahia Blanca in the temperate region of Argentina

Noelia Inés Zanetti
Universidad Nacional del Sur
AZM 32(1) Coendou mexicanus

Publicado 10-04-2016

Palabras clave

  • Araneae,
  • diversity,
  • guilds,
  • pitfall traps,
  • taxocenosis

Cómo citar

Zanetti, N. I. (2016). Records of epigeal spiders in Bahia Blanca in the temperate region of Argentina. ACTA ZOOLÓGICA MEXICANA (N.S.), 32(1), 32–44. https://doi.org/10.21829/azm.2016.3201924

Resumen

Ecological surveys of diversity and seasonal patterns of spiders in relation with cadavers have rarely been conducted, despite the high potential species diversity and abundance of spiders. The composition, abundance, guilds and seasonality of the spiders of Bahía Blanca, in the temperate region of Argentina were analysed. The study was performed in a semi-rural area between 2010 and 2011, using pitfall traps that were checked daily during 168 ± 7 days in winter, 38 days in spring, 30 days in summer, and 71 days in autumn. A total of 972 spiders were recorded belonging to 22 families and 65 species/morphospecies. The most abundant families were: Lycosidae, Zodariidae, Thomisidae, Theridiidae and Salticidae. The guild with more specimens was represented by ground hunters followed by specialists and ambush hunters, and the guild with the greatest number of species corresponded also to the ground hunters. Considering all specimens, adults prevailed with respect to juveniles, and males were more abundant than females. The more abundant species were Leprolochus birabeni, Steatoda sp. 1, Thomisidae sp. 33, Thomisidae sp. 32, Ostearius melanopygius and Metaltella simoni.

Citas

  1. Alderweireldt, M. 1989. An ecological analysis of the spider fauna (Araneae) occurring in maize fields, Italian ryegrass fields and their edge zones, by means of different multivariate techniques. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 27: 293-306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-88610-1.50029-2
  2. Almada, M. S. 2010. Primer relevamiento de arañas (Araneae) en la reserva ecológica de la ciudad universitaria El Pozo (Santa Fe, Argentina). Informe Técnico del Museo Provincial de Ciencias Naturales Florentino Ameghino. Biológica, (12): 61-64.
  3. Almada, M. S., Sosa, M. A. & González, A. 2012. Araneofauna
  4. (Arachnida: Araneae) en cultivos de algodón (Gossypium hirsutum) transgénicos y convencionales en el norte de Santa Fe, Argentina. Revista de Biología Tropical, 60: 611-623.
  5. Armendano, A. & González, A. 2010. Comunidad de arañas (Arachnida, Araneae) del cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Revista de Biología Tropical, 58: 747-757. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v58i2.5243
  6. Armendano, A. & González, A. 2011a. Efecto de las arañas (Arachnida: Araneae) como depredadoras de insectos plaga en cultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) (Fabaceae) en Argentina. Revista de Biología Tropical, 59: 1651-1662. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v59i4.3427
  7. Armendano, A. & González, A. 2011b. Spider fauna associated with wheat crops and adjacent habitats in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 82: 1176-1182. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22201/ib.20078706e.2011.4.734
  8. Avalos, G., Rubio, G. D., Bar, M. E. & González, A. 2007. Arañas (Arachnida: Araneae) asociadas a dos bosques degradados del Chaco húmedo en Corrientes, Argentina. Revista de Biología Tropical, 55: 899-909. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v55i3-4.5965
  9. Avalos, G., Damborsky, M. P., Bar, M. E., Oscherov, E. B. & Porcel, E. 2009. Composición de la fauna de Araneae (Arachnida) de la Reserva provincial Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina. Revista de Biología Tropical, 57: 339-351. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v57i1-2.11325
  10. Avalos, G., Bar, M. E., Oscherov, E. B. & González, A. 2013. Diversidad de Araneae en cultivos de Citrus sinensis (Rutaceae) de la Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. Revista de Biología Tropical, 61: 1243-1260. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v61i3.11938
  11. Barnes, B. V., Zak, D. R., Denton, S. R. & Spurr, S. H. 1998. Forest Ecology, 4th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, NY, 774 pp.
  12. Bell, J. R., Wheater, C. P. & Cullen, W. R. 2001. The implications of grassland and heathland management for the conservation of spider communities: a review. Journal of Zoology (London), 255: 377-387. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836901001479
  13. Beltramo, J., Bertolaccinia, I. & González, A. 2006. Spiders of soybean crops in Santa Fe Province, Argentina: influence of surrounding spontaneous vegetation on lot colonization. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 66: 891-898. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842006000500015
  14. Campo, A. & Zapperi, P. 2010. Diferenciación espacial de las precipitaciones en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca. Contribuciones científicas-Sociedad Argentina de Estudios Geográficos, 22: 97-105.
  15. Campo de Ferreras, A., Hernández Moresino, S., Huamantinco
  16. Cisneros, M. & Zapperi, P. 2004. Ocurrencia de Sudestadas en
  17. el Suroeste bonaerense. Contribuciones científicas-Sociedad Argentina de Estudios Geográficos, 16: 45-50.
  18. Campo, A., Ramos, B. & Zapperi, P. 2009. Análisis de las variaciones anuales de las precipitaciones en el Suroeste bonaerense, Argentina. Actas electrónicas del 12 Congreso de Geógrafos Latinoamericanos 12: 1-12.
  19. Catts, E. P. & Goff, M. L. 1992. Forensic Entomology in Criminal Investigations. Annual Review of Entomology, 37: 253-272. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.37.010192.001345
  20. Centeno, N. D., Maldonado, M. & Oliva, A. 2002. Seasonal patterns of arthropods occurring on sheltered and unsheltered pig carcasses in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina). Forensic Science International, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0379-0738(02)00037-3
  21. : 63-70.
  22. Chin, H. C., Kurahashi, H., Marwi, M. A., Jeffery, J. & Omar, B. 2011. Opportunistic insects associated with pig carrions in Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana, 40: 601-604.
  23. Clausen, I. H. S. 1986. The use of spiders (Araneae) as ecological indicators. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, 7: 83-86.
  24. Colwell, R. K. & Coddington, J. A. 1994. Estimating the extent of terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 345: 101-118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1994.0091
  25. Comstock, J. 1965. La araña de libros, 4ed. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY, 729 pp.
  26. Colwell, R. K. 2013. EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 9.1.0. User’s Guide and application. http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates/EstimateSPages/
  27. EstimateS.php. Accessed on 5 June 2015.
  28. Crouch, T. E. & Lubin, Y. 2000. Effects of climate and prey availability on foraging in a social spider, Stegodyphus mimosarum (Araneae, Eresidae). The Journal of Arachnology, 28: 158-168. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1636/0161-8202(2000)028[0158:EOCAPA]2.0.CO;2
  29. Desales-Lara, M. A., Francke, O. F. & Sánchez-Nava, P. 2013. Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae) en hábitats antropogénicos. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 84: 291-305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7550/rmb.31708
  30. Desender, K., Alderweireldt, M. & Pollet, M. 1989. Field edges and their importance for polyphagos predatory arthropods. Mededelingen Van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 54: 823-833.
  31. Diehl, E., Mader, V. L., Wolters, V. & Birkhofer, K. 2013. Management intensity and vegetation complexity affect web-building spiders and their prey. Oecologia, 173: 579-589. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-013-2634-7
  32. Durán-Barrón, C. G., Francke, O. F. & Pérez-Ortiz, T. M. 2009. Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae) asociadas a viviendas de la ciudad de México (Área metropolitana). Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 80: 55-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22201/ib.20078706e.2009.001.584
  33. Ferretti, N., Pompozzi, G., Copperi, S., González, A. & Pérez-Miles, F. 2010. Arañas Mygalomorphae de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina: clave para la determinación de especies. BioScriba, 3: 15-34.
  34. Ferretti, N., Pompozzi, G., Copperi, S., Pérez-Miles, F. & González, A. 2012. Mygalomorph spider community of a natural reserve in a hilly system in central Argentina. Journal of Insect Science, 12: 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1673/031.012.3101
  35. Foelix, R. F. 2011. Biology of Spiders. Third edition. Oxford University Press, Ney York, NY, 432 pp.
  36. Flórez-D., E. 1998. Estructura de comunidades de arañas (Araneae) en el departamento Del Valle, suroccidente de Colombia. Caldasia, 20: 173-192.
  37. Gabella, J., Zapperi, P. & Campo, A. 2010. Distribución estacional de las precipitaciones en el Suroeste bonaerense. Actas de las VIII Jornadas de Geografía Física, VIII: 87-94.
  38. García-Rojo, A. M., Honorato, L., González, M. & Téllez, A. 2009. Determinación del intervalo post mortem mediante el estudio de la sucesión de insectos en dos cadáveres hallados en el interior de una finca rústica en Madrid. Cuadernos de Medicina Forense, 15: 137-145. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4321/S1135-76062009000200004
  39. Gasnier, T. R., Torres-Sanchez, M. P., Azevedo, C. S. & Höfer, H. 2002. Adult size of eight hunting spider species in central Amazonia: temporal variations and sexual dimorphisms. Journal of Arachnology, 30: 146-154. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1636/0161-8202(2002)030[0146:ASOEHS]2.0.CO;2
  40. Gaston, H. J., Blackburn, T. M., Hammond, P. M. & Stork, N. E. 1993. Relationships between abundance and body size: where do tourists fit? Ecological Entomology, 18: 310-314. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1993.tb01106.x
  41. Gerschman de Pikelin, B. S. & Schiapelli, R. D. 1963. Llave para la determinación de familias de arañas argentinas. Physis, 24: 43-72.
  42. Gil, V., Zapperi, P., Campo, A., Iuorno, M. V. & Ramborge, M. A. 2008. Análisis de las precipitaciones de otoño y primavera en el Suroeste bonaerense. Actas de las VII jornadas Nacionales de Geografía Física, 42: 149-158.
  43. Gill, G. J. 2005. Decomposition and arthropod succession on above group pig carrion in rural Manitoba. Technical report n° 6. Department of Entomology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 174 pp.
  44. Goff, M. L. 2009. Early post-mortem changes and stages of decomposition in exposed cadavers. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 49: 21-36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-9284-9
  45. Goloboff, P. A. 1995. A revision of the South American spiders of the family Nemesiidae (Araneae, Mygalomorphae). Part I: species from Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 224: 1-189.
  46. González, A., Liljesthröm, G., Minervino, E., Castro, D., González, S. & Armendano, A. 2009. Predation by Misumenops pallidus (Araneae: Thomisidae) on insect pests of soybean cultures in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The Journal of Arachnology, 37: 282-286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1636/T08-63.1
  47. Greene, A., Breisch, N. L., Boardman, T., Pagac, B. B. Jr., Kunickis, E., Howes, R. K. & Brown, P. V. 2009. The Mediterranean Recluse Spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour): an abundant but cryptic inhabitant of deep infrastructure in the Washington, D.C. Area (Arachnida: Araneae: Sicariidae). American Entomologist, 55: 158-167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ae/55.3.158
  48. Grismado, C. J. 2007. Comunidades de Arañas de la Reserva Natural Otamendi, Provincia de Buenos Aires. Riqueza específica y diversidad. Thesis of B. Sc. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad CAECE, Buenos Aires, 95 pp.
  49. Grismado, C. J., Crudele, I., Damer, L., López, N., Olejnik, N. & Trivero, S. 2011. Comunidades de arañas de la Reserva Natural Otamendi, Provincia de Buenos Aires. Composición taxonómica y riqueza específica. Biológica, (14): 7-48.
  50. Hatley, C. L. & Macmahon, J. A. 1980. Spider community organization: seasonal variation and the role of vegetation architecture. Environmental Entomology, 9: 632-639. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/9.5.632
  51. Heidger, C. & Nentwing, W. 1989. Augmentation of beneficial arthropods by strip-management. 3. Artificial introduction of a spider species which preys on wheat pest species. Entomophaga, 34: 511-522. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02374389
  52. Jiménez, M. L. & Navarrete, J. G. 2010. Fauna de arañas del suelo de una comunidad árida-tropical en Baja California Sur, México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 81: 417-426. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22201/ib.20078706e.2010.002.232
  53. Halaj, J., Ross, D. W. & Moldenkel, A. R. 1998. Habitat structure and prey availability as predictors of the abundance and community organization of spiders in Western Oregon forest canopies. The Journal of Arachnology, 26: 203-220.
  54. Keh, B. 1985. Scope and applications of forensic entomology. Annual Review of Entomology, 30: 137-154. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.30.010185.001033
  55. Cramer, K. L. 2015. Activity patterns of a synanthropic population of the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa (Araneae: Sicariidae),with observations on feeding and mating. Journal of Ara chnology, 43: 67-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1636/J14-44.1
  56. Kiritani, K., Kawahara, S., Sasaba, T. & Nakasuji, F. 1972. Quantitative evaluation of predation by spiders on the green rice leaf hopper, Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler, by a sight count method. Researches on Population Ecology, 13: 187-200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02521977
  57. Kwon, T-S., Lee, C. M., Kim, T. W., Kim, S-S. & Sung, J. H. 2014. Prediction of abundance of forest spiders according to climate warming in South Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 7: e133-e155. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2014.04.002
  58. Liljesthröm, G., Minervino, E., Castro, D. & González, A. 2002. Ecology, behavior and bionomics: la comunidad de arañas del cultivo de soja en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Neotropical Entomology, 31: 197-210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2002000200005
  59. Lima Silveira, A. 2009. Primeiro registro sinantrópico de Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet, 1849) (Araneae, Sicariidae) no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 42: 723-726. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822009000600021
  60. Lord, W. D. 1990. Case histories of use of insects in investigations, pp. 9-37. In: E. P. Catts and N. H. Haskell (Eds.). Entomology and death, a procedural guide Ed. 1. Joyce’s Print Shop, Clemson, SC.
  61. Lubin, Y. D. 1978. Seasonal abundance and diversity of web-building spiders in relation to habitat structure on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Journal of Arachnology, 6: 31-51.
  62. Maelfait, J. P., Jocque, R., Baert, L. & Desender, K. 1990. Heathland management and spiders. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 190: 261-166.
  63. Mahalakshmi, R. & Jeyaparvathi, S. 2014. Diversity of spider fauna in the cotton field of Thailakulam, Virudhunagar District, Tamil Nadu, India. The Journal of Zoology Studies, 1: 12-18.
  64. McNabb, D. M., Halaj, J. & Wise, D. H. 2001. Inferring trophic positions of generalist predators and their linkage to the detrital food web in agroecosystems: a stable isotope analysis. Pedobiologia, 45: 289-297. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1078/0031-4056-00087
  65. Meffe, G. K. & Carroll, C. R. 1994. Principles of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, 779 pp.
  66. Mineo, M. F., Del-Claro, K. & Brescovit, A. D. 2010. Seasonal variation of ground spiders in a Brazilian Savanna. Zoologia, 27: 353-362. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702010000300006
  67. Minervino, E. 1996. Estudio biológico y ecobiológico de arañas depredadoras de plagas de la soja. Thesis of Doctor. Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, 130 pp.
  68. Morrone, J. J. 2002. Presentación sintética de un nuevo esquema biogeográfico de América Latina y el Caribe. Monografías Tercer Milenio SEA, 2: 267-275.
  69. New, T. R. 2005. Invertebrate Conservation and Agricultural Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 349 pp.
  70. Norris, K. R. 1965. The bionomics of blow files. Annual Review of Entomology, 10: 47-68. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.10.010165.000403
  71. Nyffeler, M. & Benz, G. 1987. Spiders in natural pest control: a review. Journal of Applied Entomology, 103: 321-339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.1987.tb00992.x
  72. Nyeffeler, M. & Benz, G. 1988. Feeding ecology and predatory importance of wolf spiders (Pardosa sp) (Araneae, Lycosidae) in Winter wheat fields. Journal of Applied Entomology, 106: 123-134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.1988.tb00575.x
  73. Pinkus-Rendón, M. A., León-Cortés, J. L. & Ibarra-Núñez, G.
  74. Spider diversity in a tropical habitat gradient in Chiapas, Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 12: 61-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1366-9516.2006.00217.x
  75. Pompozzi, G. A., Tizón, F. R. & Pelaéz, D. V. 2011. Effects of different frequencies of fire on an epigeal spider community in SouthernCaldenal, Argentina. Zoological Studies, 50: 718-724.
  76. Ramirez, M. J. 1999. Orden Araneae. En El ABC en la Determinación de artrópodos I, pp. 39-59. In: F. A. Crespo, M. S. Iglesias & A. C. Valverde (eds.). CCC Educando, Buenos Aires, BS. AS.
  77. Rubio, G. D., Corronca, J. A. & Damborsky, M. P. 2008. Do spider diversity and assemblages change in different ontiguous habitats? A case study in the protected habitats of the humid Chaco ecoregion, Northeast Argentina. Environmental Entomology, 37: 419-430. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/37.2.419
  78. Rubio, G. D. & Moreno, C. E. 2010. Orb-weaving spider diversity in the Iberá Marshlands, Argentina. Neotropical Entomology, 39:496-505. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2010000400006
  79. Scheidler, M. 1990. Influence of habitat structure and vegetation architecture on spiders. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 225: 333-340.
  80. Seastedt, T. R., Mameli, L. & Gridley, K. 1981. Arthropod use of invertebrate carrion. American Midland Naturalist, 105: 124-129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2425017
  81. Silva de Miranda, G. & Ponce de Leão Giupponi, A. 2011. A new synanthropic species of Charinus Simon, 1892 from Brazilian Amazonia and notes on the genus (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae). Zootaxa, 2980: 61-68. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2980.1.5
  82. Smith, K. G. V. 1986. A manual of forensic entomology. The Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London, 205 pp.
  83. Sørensen, L. L., Coddington, J. A. & Scharff, N. 2002. Inventorying and estimating subcanopy spider diversity using semiquantitative sampling methods in an Afromontane Forest. Environmental Entomology, 31: 319-330. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-31.2.319
  84. Spears, L. R. & MacMahon, J. A. 2012. An experimental study of spiders in a shrub-steppe ecosystem: the effects of prey availability and shrub architecture. Journal of Arachnology, 40: 218-227. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1636/P11-87.1
  85. Sudhikumar, A. V., Mundackatharappel, J. M., Sunish, E. & Sebastian, P. A. 2005. Seasonal variation in spider abundance in Kuttanad rice agroecosystem, Kerala, India (Araneae). European Arachnology. Acta zoologica bulgarica, Suppl. (1): 181-190.
  86. Taylor, R. J. & Doran, N. 2001. Use of terrestrial invertebrates as indicators of the ecological sustainability of forest management under the Montreal Process. Journal of Insect Conservation, 5: 221-231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013397410297
  87. Tsai, Z. I., Huang, P. S. & Tso, I. M. 2006. Habitat management by aboriginals promotes high spider diversity on an Asian tropical island. Ecography, 29: 84-94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2006.0906-7590.04425.x
  88. Turnbull, A. L. 1973. Ecology of the true spiders (Araneomorphae). Annual Review of Entomology, 18: 305-348. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.18.010173.001513
  89. Uetz, G. W. 1991. Habitat structure and spider foraging, pp. 325-348. In: S. S Bell, E. D. Mccoy and H. R. Mushinsky (Eds.). Habitat structure; the Physical Arrangement of Objects in Space. Chapman and Hall, London. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3076-9_16
  90. Uetz, G. W. 1992. Foraging strategies of spiders. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 7: 155-159. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(92)90209-T
  91. Watson, E. J. 2004. Faunal succession of necrophilous insects associated with high-profile wildlife carcasses in Louisiana. PhD thesis. Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, LA, vii+212 pp.
  92. Villareal, H., Álvarez, M., Córdoba, S., Escobar, F., Fagua, G., Gast, F., Mendoza, H., Ospina, M. & Umaña, A. M. 2004. Manual de métodos para el desarrollo de inventarios de biodiversidad. Programa de inventarios de Biodiversidad. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá, Colombia, 236 pp.
  93. Weeks, R. D. Jr. & Holtzer, T. O. 2000. Habitat and season in structuring ground-dwelling spider (Araneae) communities in a shortgrass steppe ecosystem. Environmental Entomology, 29: 1164-1172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-29.6.1164
  94. Willett, T. R. 2001. Spiders and other arthropods as indicators in oldgrowth versus logged redwood stands. Restoration Ecology, 9: 410-420. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100X.2001.94010.x
  95. Wise, D. H., Snyder, W. E. & Tuntibunpaku, P. 1999. Spiders in decomposition food webs of agroecosystems: theory and evidence. Journal of Arachnology, 27: 363-370.
  96. Whitmore, C., Slotow, R., Crouch, T. E. & Dippenaar-Schoeman, A. S. 2002. Diversity of spiders (Araneae) in a savanna reserve, Northern Province, South Africa. Journal of Arachnology, 30: 344-356. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1636/0161-8202(2002)030[0344:DOSAIA]2.0.CO;2
  97. World Spider Catalog. 2015. Version 16. Natural History Museum Bern. http://www.wsc.nmbe.ch/. Accessed on 30 May 2015.
  98. Zanetti, N. I. 2013. Estudio bionómico de la coleópterofauna de interés forense bajo condiciones naturales y controladas en el área de Bahía Blanca, Prov. de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Tesis de Doctorado. Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina,viii+291 pp.
  99. Zanetti, N. I., Visciarelli, E. C. & Centeno, N. D. 2015. Associational patterns of scavenger beetles to ecomposition stages. Journal of Forensic Sciences 60: 919-927. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.12781