Blended essential oils as a tool to control Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae)



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Integrated vector management; house fly; toxicology; GC-MS; pesticide



Musca domestica Linnaeus, (Diptera: Muscidae), commonly named the housefly, is a pest of public health importance because it is a vector of many diseases in humans and animals. Synthetic insecticide application is the primary strategy for controlling houseflies, but overreliance and misuse of these substances can adversely affect man and the environment. In addition, this fly has developed resistance to various insecticides. Blends of essential oils are natural alternatives to complement synthetic insecticides to control this pest. In this study, we compared the insecticidal effects of a blend of five commercial essential oils and the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin against larvae and adults of the housefly. Additionally, we described the influence of both treatments on the development of this species when treated in the larval stage. Finally, we analyzed the chemical composition of the blend using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to correlate the biological activity with compounds present in the blend. The essential oil blend showed a higher larvicidal effect than lambda-cyhalothrin (5% active ingredient) and a similar lethal effect on adults. Both treatments caused similar deleterious effects on the life cycle of M. domestica. The chemical analysis of the blend showed the presence of terpenes, terpenoids, and one hydrocarbon. Differences were observed in the chemical composition of the headspace of the blend accordingly to the sampling method. We discuss our findings in terms of an integrated vector management framework.


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Alavez-Rosas, D., Cortés Martínez, F., Cruz Esteban, S., & Malo Rivera, E. Álvaro. (2024). Blended essential oils as a tool to control Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae). ACTA ZOOLÓGICA MEXICANA (N.S.), 40(1), 1–14.
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