Vol. 34 (2018)
Artículos originales

Ectoparasites associated with a Great Horned Owl nesting population in fragmented landscape of Baja California peninsula, México

Raquel Bolaños-García
Laboratory of Spatial Ecology and Conservation, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, La Paz, B.C.S. México. Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 195, Playa Palo de Santa Rita Sur, C.P. 23096; La Paz, B.C.S.
Ricardo Rodríguez-Estrella
University of ArizonaUniversity of Arizona, School of Natural Resources and the Environment, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo
Laboratorio de Acarología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510; Ciudad de México, México.

Publicado 2018-11-16

Palabras clave

  • Lice
  • flies
  • fledglings
  • Great Horned owl
  • fragmented área
  • Mexico

Cómo citar

Bolaños-García, R., Rodríguez-Estrella, R., & Guzmán-Cornejo, C. (2018). Ectoparasites associated with a Great Horned Owl nesting population in fragmented landscape of Baja California peninsula, México. ACTA ZOOLÓGICA MEXICANA (N.S.), 34(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.21829/azm.2018.3412142

Resumen

Los parásitos juegan un papel importante en la historia de vida de sus hospederos porque pueden afectar la salud, regular la dinámica poblacional e inclusive alterar la competición inter-especifica. Bajo ciertas condiciones de deterioro del hábitat, como la fragmentación, puede aumentar los niveles de infestación y en consecuencia tener efectos negativos más marcados en los hospederos. Este es el primer estudio de la prevalencia e intensidad de ectoparásitos en volantones de Búho Cornudo Bubo virginianus. Evaluamos los ectoparásitos en pollos de nidos situados en un paisaje árido fragmentado de la península de Baja California. Los pollos casi volantones de 40 días de edad fueron tomados del nido durante las temporadas reproductivas del 2015 y 2017, para realizar la colecta de ectoparásitos y regresarlos posteriormente. Se colectaron 81 ectoparásitos de 36 polluelos en 15 nidos. Fue registrada una infestación del 61% (n=22) con ocho especies (H = 1.56), cinco de las cuales fueron parásitos hematófagos. Los ectoparásitos estuvieron distribuidos en cinco órdenes; Diptera (Icosta americana); Hemiptera (Cimicidae gen. sp.); Phthiraptera (Neohaematopinus sciurinus, Colpocephalum pectinatum); Siphonaptera (Orchopea sp.), y Mesostigmata (Ornihtonysus sylviarum). También se registró una especie de piojo masticador (n=5) (Geomydoecus telli) y una de ácaro de plumas (n=7) asociados con el búho cornudo. La mosca piojo I. americana y el piojo masticador C. pectinatum presentaron alta prevalencia (26.5% y 20.6% respectivamente), mientras que el ácaro hematófago O. silviarum presentó la más alta intensidad media en un sólo nido (15.5). La pulga Orchopea sp., y los piojos, masticador G. telli y succionador N. sciurinus, fueron registros raros y exhibieron los valores más bajos de prevalencia e intensidad media; estas especies se han registrado en asociación principalmente a roedores, así que probablemente se transmitieron a los pollos al llevar presas de roedores al nido del búho. Adicionalmente una chinche Cimicidae gen. sp., se encontró en un huésped. Colpocephalum pectinatum es primer registro para el Búho cornudo como hospedero. La abundancia de ectoparásitos en un nido de búho fue independiente de la abundancia de nidos cercanos (Moran´s I = 0.010; z = 0.16, P > 0.05). Se discuten las implicaciones que tienen los ectoparásitos en una población del Búho cornudo en un hábitat fragmentado del desierto árido de Baja California.

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