The genus Phanaeus Macleay comprises an important part of the Neotropical dung beetle fauna. With a few exceptions, these beetles are preferentially coprophagous, exploiting the moist excrement of large herbivores and omnivores. The nesting behavior (nidification) of Phanaeus is characterized mainly by tunneling rather than rolling behavior. Phanaeus species are Pattern II nesters: during the breeding season, the male and female cooperate in provisioning the nesting gallery, even though females can perform these activities alone. Their intricate behaviors and extravagant colors and horns have made these beetles the subject of numerous publications dealing with male-male competition, bisexual cooperation, nidification and more. This review is meant to give an overview of published and new behavioral observations for these species as well as to suggest directions for future research.