Vol. 38 (2022)
Artículos originales

Diversidad avifaunística y gremios tróficos en tres condiciones diferentes de cobertura vegetal selvática, al sureste de Chiapas, México

Eliasaf Caheri López-Muñoz
Departamento Conservación de la Biodiversidad. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, C.P. 29290, San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México.
Paula L. Enríquez
Departamento Conservación de la Biodiversidad. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, C.P. 29290, San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México.
Romeo A. Saldaña-Vázquez
Instituto de Investigaciones en Medio Ambiente Xabier Gorostiaga SJ. Universidad Iberoamericana Puebla, C. P. 72820, San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, México.
Francisco Hernández-Morales
Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Intercultural de Chiapas, C. P. 29299, San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México.
Rémy Vandame
Departamento de Agricultura, Sociedad y Ambiente. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, C.P. 29290, San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México.

Publicado 2022-07-25

Palabras clave

  • asociaciones vegetales
  • avifauna
  • conservación
  • recursos alimenticios
  • Selva Lacandona

Cómo citar

López-Muñoz, E. C., Enríquez, P. L., Saldaña-Vázquez, R. A., Hernández-Morales, F., & Vandame, R. (2022). Diversidad avifaunística y gremios tróficos en tres condiciones diferentes de cobertura vegetal selvática, al sureste de Chiapas, México. ACTA ZOOLÓGICA MEXICANA (N.S.), 38(1), 1-36. https://doi.org/10.21829/azm.2022.3812434

Resumen

Los bosques, selvas y otras asociaciones vegetales han sufrido un proceso de degradación ambiental, atribuido a la deforestación y a la fragmentación con el objetivo de ampliar la frontera agrícola-pecuaria. Estos cambios ambientales no pasan desapercibidos para las comunidades faunísticas presentes, como las aves. Una manera confiable de conocer las posibles afectaciones antropogénicas en los ecosistemas es a través del análisis de los gremios tróficos aviares, ya que los cambios en la estructura de la vegetación condicionan la presencia de diferentes gremios tróficos. El objetivo principal del presente estudio fue analizar las variaciones en la riqueza, abundancia y composición de las comunidades de aves y los gremios tróficos en tres diferentes condiciones de cobertura vegetal (selva con regeneración SCR, ecotonos ECO, y un poblado POB), en una región de la Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, México. El muestreo se realizó durante cuatro meses del 2020 donde se recorrieron seis transectos de aproximadamente 2 km de longitud cada uno. Se registraron en total 6,190 individuos de 201 especies de aves. El ECO presentó la mayor riqueza de aves con 155 especies, seguido por la SCR (104 especies) y finalmente, el POB (101 especies). Sin embargo, el POB presentó la mayor abundancia de individuos (2,661 individuos) con respecto a las otras dos condiciones ambientales. La mayor semejanza de las comunidades avifaunísticas ocurrió entre el poblado y el ecotono (53 %). El mayor número de gremios tróficos también se registró en el ECO (15). En general, los insectívoros tuvieron una buena representatividad, particularmente en la SCR. Por el contrario, los granívoros estuvieron relacionados con los espacios abiertos y semiabiertos, desprovistos de vegetación arbórea (POB y ECO). Los frugívoros tuvieron mayor número de especies en el ECO, pero fueron más abundantes en el POB. Mientras que, los nectarívoros se observaron con mayor frecuencia en el POB. La deforestación y la fragmentación reducen el espacio físico de los ecosistemas y también alteran la disponibilidad de alimento para las aves. Lo anterior, se verá reflejado en la presencia-ausencia de los diferentes gremios tróficos y en las funciones ecológicas que son capaces de realizar.

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