Vol. 36 (2020)
Artículos

Abundance and diversity of soil macroinvertebrates in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) plantations under organic and chemical fertilization in Belize

Luciano Chi
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR)
Biografía
Esperanza Huerta Lwanga
Department of Agriculture, Society and Environment, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Avenida Rancho Polígono 2-A, Col. Ciudad Industrial, C.P. 24500, Lerma, Campeche, México.
Biografía
David Álvarez Solís
Department of Agriculture, Society and Environment, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n., C.P. 29290, San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México.
Biografía
Víctor Manuel Kú Quej
1Department of Agriculture, Society and Environment, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Avenida Rancho Polígono 2-A, Col. Ciudad Industrial, C.P. 24500, Lerma, Campeche, México.
Jorge Mendoza Vega
Department of Agriculture, Society and Environment, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Avenida Rancho Polígono 2-A, Col. Ciudad Industrial, C.P. 24500, Lerma, Campeche, México.
Biografía

Publicado 2020-06-16

Cómo citar

Chi, L., Huerta Lwanga, E., Álvarez Solís, D., Kú Quej, V. M., & Mendoza Vega, J. (2020). Abundance and diversity of soil macroinvertebrates in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) plantations under organic and chemical fertilization in Belize. ACTA ZOOLÓGICA MEXICANA (N.S.), 36(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.21829/azm.2020.3611106

Resumen

Many studies suggest that sugarcane management practices have negative impact on soil quality, especially on soil organisms, however, information on macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity in conventional sugarcane fields is scarce. This study determined the abundance and diversity of soil macroinvertebrates in sugarcane plantations under 2 types of soils, Cambisol and Fluvisol, with three types of fertilizer management: chemical fertilizer, vinasse and filter mud, and in a secondary forest (on a Cambisol).  Sampling was carried out in northern Belize during two crop cycles (from May 2013 to May 2015). Soil macroinvertebrates were collected using monoliths based on Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TSBF) Handbook of Methods at the end of the rainy seasons. The parameters evaluated were biomass, density and diversity of soil macroinvertebrates (number of morphospecies, an ecological index for tropical soil quality based on macrofauna, and a converted Shannon index (H_exp)), yield and plant response variables (number of stool, number of stem, number of active leaves, stem length and stem diameter). A total of 7,634 individuals were identified, grouped into 52 morphospecies belonging to 16 orders and three species of annelids. No significant differences existed among management systems (application of chemical fertilizer, vinasse, filter mud and secondary forest) on abundance and diversity of soil macroinvertebrates, yield and plant variables. However, there were significant differences between soils and cycles in some evaluated parameters. Presuming that soil type and seasonal conditions, in a two years trial, had higher weight on determine the studied parameters than the different management systems.

Citas

  1. Aloma, D. J. (1973) La cachaza como fertilizante de la caña de azúcar. La agricultura de Cuba 1, 51–70.
  2. Andersen, A. N., Majer, J. D. (2004) Ants show the way Down Under: invertebrates as bioindicators in land management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2, 291–298. https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0292:ASTWDU]2.0.CO;2
  3. Anderson, J. M., Ingram, J. S. I. (1993) Tropical soil biology and fertility: a handbook of methods. 2nd ed. Wallingford: CAB International, USA, 221 pp.
  4. Araújo, M. S., Della Lucia, T. M. C., Picanço, M. C. (2004) Impacto da queima da palhada da cana-de-açúcar no ritmo diário de forrageamento de Atta bisphaerica Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 2, 33–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81752004000100006
  5. Bardgett, R. D., van der Putten, W. H. (2014) Belowground biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nature, 515, 505–511. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13855
  6. Baretta, D. (2006) Análise multivariada da fauna edáfica em diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília, 41, 1675–1679. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2006001100014
  7. Barnes, A., Weigelt, P., Jochum, M., Ott, D., Hodapp, D., Haneda, N., Brose, U. (2016) Species richness and biomass explain spatial turnover in ecosystem functioning across tropical and temperate ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 371, 20150279. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0279
  8. Barrios, E. (2007) Soil biota, ecosystem services and land productivity. Ecological Economics, 64, 269–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.03.004
  9. Barros, E., Pashanasi, B., Constantino, R., Lavelle, P. (2002) Effects of land-use system on the soil macrofauna in western Brazilian Amazonia. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 35, 338–347. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-002-0479-z
  10. Bautista, F., Cram-Heydrich, S., Sommer-Cervantes, I. (2011) Suelos. Pp: 227–258. In: F. Bautista-Zúñiga, J. L. Palacio-Prieto, H. Delfín-González (Eds.). Técnicas de muestreo para manejadores de recursos naturales: México. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Investigaciones en Geografía Ambiental, México.
  11. Benazzi, E., Bianchi, M., Fernandes, M., Lima, E., Zonta, E. (2013) Impacts of harvesting methods of sugar cane on the soil macrofauna in production area in Espírito Santo – Brazil. Semina. Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, 34, 3425–3442. http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2013v34n6Supl1p3425
  12. Blouin, M., Hodson, M. E., Delgado, E. A., Baker, G., Brussaard, L., Butt, K. R., Dai, J., Dendoovenh, L., Peres, G., Tondoh, J. E., Cluzeau, D., Brun, J. J. (2013) A review of earthworm impact on soil function and ecosystem services. European Journal of Soil Science, 64, 161–182. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12025
  13. Brown, G. G., Pashanasi, B., Villenave, C., Patron, J. C., Senapati, B. K., Giri, S., Barois, I., Lavelle, P., Blanchart, E., Blakemore, R. J., Spain, A. V., Boyer, J. (1999) Effects of earthworms on plant production in the tropics. Pp. 87–147. In: P. Lavelle, L. Brussaard, P. F. Hendrix (Eds.). Earthworm management in tropical agroecosystems. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  14. Cabrera, G., Robaina, N., Ponce de León, D. (2011) Riqueza y abundancia de la macrofauna edáfica en cuatro usos de la tierra en las provincias de Artemisa y Mayabeque, Cuba. Pastos y Forrajes, 34, 313–330.
  15. Cabrera-Dávila, G., Socarrás-Rivero, A., Hernández-Vigoa, G., de León-Lima, D., Menéndez-Rivero, Y., Sánchez-Rondón, J. (2017) Evaluación de la macrofauna como indicador del estado de salud en siete sistemas de uso de la tierra, en Cuba. Pastos y Forrajes, 40, 118–126.
  16. CATS (2012) La cachaza y su empleo como abono orgánico en plantaciones de caña de azúcar. Central Azucarera Tempisque S.A (CATS), Guanacaste, Costa Rica, 4 pp.
  17. Chi, L., Mendoza-Vega, J., Huerta, E., Álvarez, D. (2017) Effect of long-term sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivation of chemical properties of soil in Belize. Communications in soil science and plant analysis, 48, 741–755. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2016.1254794
  18. Cifuentes, R., De León, R., Porres, C. (2011) Producción de abono orgánico a partir de cachaza y tallos de caña de azúcar recuperados de las carreteras. Revista de la Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, 23, 8–17.
  19. Correia, M. E., Oliveira, L. C. M. (2000) Soil fauna: General and methodological aspects. Seropédica, Embrapa Agrobiologia, Brazil, 46 pp.
  20. Crepaldi, R. A., Portilho, I. I. R., Silvestre, R., Mercante, F. M. (2014) Formigas como bioindicadores da qualidade do solo em sistema integrado lavoura-pecuária. Ciência Rural, 44, 781–787.
  21. De León, M., González, R. (2011) Informe del estudio de suelo para recomendaciones de fertilizantes en el área cañera de la BSCFA en Belice. Tecnoazúcar, La Habana, Cuba, 95 pp.
  22. De Ruiter, P. C., Griffiths, B., Moore, J. C. (2002) Biodiversity and stability in soil ecosystems: patterns, processes and the effects of disturbance. Pp. 102–113. In: M. Loreau, S. Naeem, P. Inchausti (Eds.). Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Synthesis and perspectives. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  23. Decaëns, T., Jiménez, J. J. (2002) Earthworms communities under an agricultural intensification gradient in Colombia. Plant and Soil, 240, 133–143. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015844610604
  24. Deibert, E. J., Utter, R. A. (1994) Earthworm Populations Related to Soil and Fertilizer Management Practices. Better Crops/Summer, 78, 9–11.
  25. Dotaniya, M. L., Datta, S. C., Biswas, D. R., Dotaniya, C. K., Meena, B. L., Rajendiran, S., Regar, K. L., Lata, M. (2016) Use of sugarcane industrial by-products for improving sugarcane productivity and soil health. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste Agriculture, 5 (2), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40093-016-0132-8
  26. Driessen, P. M., Dudal, R. (1989) Lecture notes on the geography, formation, properties and use of the major soils of the world. Agricultural University Wageningen, Netherlands and Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, 295 pp.
  27. Edwards, C. A., Bohlen, P. J. (1996) Biology and Ecology of Earthworms. Third edition. Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 407 pp.
  28. Evans, A. T., Dawes, T., Ward, P., Lo, N. (2010) Ants and termites increase crop yield in a dry climate. Nature communications, 2 (262), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1257
  29. Fragoso, C. (2001) Las lombrices de tierra de México (Annelida, Oligochaeta): diversidad, ecología y manejo. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (nueva serie), 1, 131–171.
  30. García, E. (2004) Modificaciones al Sistema de clasificación climática de Köppen. Serie de libro No. 4. Quinta edición, Instituto de Geografía, México, 98 pp.
  31. Gardi, C., Tomaselli, M., Parisi, V., Petraglia, A., Santini, C. (2002) Soil quality indicators and biodiversity in northern Italian permanent grasslands. European Journal of Soil Biology, 38, 103–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1164-5563(01)01111-6
  32. Geissen, V., Sánchez-Hernández, R., Kampichler, C., Ramos-Reyes, R., Sepulveda-Lozada, A., Ochoa-Goana, S., de Jong, B. H. J., Huerta-Lwanga, E., Hernández-Daumas, S. (2009) Effects of land use change on some properties of tropical soils – an example from Southeast Mexico. Geoderma 151, 87–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.03.011
  33. Ghulam, S., Khan, M. J., Usman, K., Ullah, S. (2012) Effect of different rates of press mud on plant growth and yield of lentil in calcareous soil. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 28 (2), 249–252.
  34. Gibb, T., Oseto, Y. (2006) Arthropod Collection and Identification: Field and Laboratory Techniques. Academic Press, 311 pp.
  35. Gilbert, R. A., Morris, D. R., Rainbolt, C. R, McCray, J. M., Perdomo, R. E., Eiland, B., Powell, G., Montes, G. (2008) Sugarcane response to mill mud, fertilizer, and soybean nutrient sources on a sandy soil. Agronomy Journal, 100 (3), 845–854. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2007.0247
  36. Gupta, N., Tripathi, S., Balomajumder, C. (2011) Characterization of press mud: a sugar industry waste. Fuel, 90 (1), 389–394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.08.021
  37. Hallaire, V., Curmi, P., Duboisset, A., Lavelle, P., Pashanasi, B. (2000) Soil structure changes induced by the tropical earthworm Ponstoscolex corethrurus and organic inputs in a Peruvian ultisol. European Journal of Soil Biology, 36, 35–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1164-5563(00)01048-7
  38. Hernández-Melchor, G., Salgado, G. S., Palma, L. D., Lagunes-Espinoza, L., Castelán, E. M., Ruiz R. O. (2008) Vinaza y composta de cachaza como fuente de nutrientes en caña de azúcar en un gleysol mólico de Chiapas, México. Interciencia, 33 (11), 860–855.
  39. Huerta, E., Fragoso, C., Rodriguez-Olan, J., Evia-Castillo, I., Montejo-Meneses, E., De la Cruz-Mondragon, M., Garcia-Hernandez, R. (2006) Presence of exotic and native earthworms in principal aground natural systems in Central and Southeastern Tabasco, Mexico. Caribbean Journal of Science, 42, 359–365.
  40. Huerta, E., Kampichler, C., Geissen, V., Ochoa-Gaona, S., Ben de Jong., Hernández-Daumás, S. (2009) Towards an ecological index for tropical soil quality based on soil macrofauna. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 44 (8), 1056–1062. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2009000800039
  41. Huerta, E., Rodríguez-Olán, J., Evia-Castillo, I., Montejo-Meneses, E., Cruz-Mondragón, M., García-Hernández, R. (2008) Relación entre la fertilidad de suelo y su población de macroinvertebrados. Terra Latinoamericana, 26 (2), 171–181.
  42. James, W. S. (1994) An illustrated key to the earthworms of the Samoan Archipelago (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae, Megascolecidae, Moniligastridae). Micronesica, 37 (1), 1–13.
  43. Jiang, M., Wang, X., Liusui, Y., Sun, X., Zhao, C., Liu, H. (2015) Diversity and abundance of soil animals as influenced by long-term fertilization in Grey Desert Soil, China. Sustainability, 7, 10837–10853. https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810837
  44. Jones, C. G., Lawton, J. H., Shachak, M. (1994) Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos, 69, 373–386. https://doi.org/10.2307/3545850
  45. Jost, L. (2006) Entropy and diversity. Oikos, 113, 363–375. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.14714.x
  46. King, R. B., Baillie, I. C., Abell, T. M. B., Dunsmore, J. R., Gray, D. A., Pratt, J. H., Versey, H. R., Wright, A. C. S., Zisman, S. A. (1992) Land resource assessment Northern Belize. Natural Resources Institute Bulletin, UK, 43, 513 pp.
  47. Klemens, E., Stierhof, T., Dauber, J., Kreimes, K., Wolters, V. (2003) On the quality of soil biodiversity indicators: abiotic and biotic parameters as predictors of soil faunal richness at different spatial scales. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 98, 273–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(03)00087-2
  48. Lagerlof, J., Andren, O. (1988) Abundance and activity of soil mites (Acari) in four cropping systems. Pedobiologia, 32, 129–145.
  49. Lang-Ovalle, F., Pérez-Vázquez, A., Martínez-Dávila, J., Platas-Rosado, D., Ojeda-Enciso, L., González-Acuña, I. (2010) Macrofauna edáfica asociado a plantaciones de mango y caña de azúcar. Terra Latinoamericana, 29, 169–177.
  50. Lavelle, P. (1996) Diversity of soil fauna and ecosystem function. Biology International, 33, 3–16.
  51. Lavelle, P., Blanchart-Martin, A., Spain, A. V., Martin, S. (1994) Impact of soil fauna on the properties of soils in the humid tropics. Pp: 157–185. In: R. Lal, P. A. Sanchez (Eds.). Myths and science of soils in the tropics. Special Publication 29. Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI, USA.
  52. Lavelle, P., Decaëns, T., Aubert, M., Barot, S., Blouin, M., Bureau, F., Margerie, P., Mora, P., Rossi, J. P. (2006) Soil invertebrates and ecosystem services. European Journal of Soil Biology, 42, 3–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2006.10.002
  53. Lavelle, P., Spain, A. V. (2001) Soil Ecology. Kluwer Scientific Publications, Amsterdam.
  54. López, A. R., Faria, C., Prieto-Fernández, A., Trasar-Cepeda, C., Manaia, C. M., Nuñes, O. C. (2011) Comparative study of the microbial diversity of bulk paddy soil of two rice fields subjected to organic and conventional farming. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 43, 115–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.09.021
  55. Magurran, E. A. (2004) Measuring Biological Diversity. Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 256 pp.
  56. Malézieux, E., Crozat, Y., Dupraz, C., Laurans, M., Makowski, D., Ozier-Lafontaine, H., Rapideli, B., de Tourdonnet, S., Valantin-Morison, M. (2009) Mixing plant species in cropping systems: concepts, tools and models. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 29, 43–62. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2007057
  57. Mathieu, J., Rossi, J. P., Mora, P., Lavelle, P., Martins, P., Rounland, C., Grimaldi, M. (2005) Recovery of soil macrofauna communities after forest clearance in Eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Conservation Biology, 19, 1598–1605. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00200.x
  58. Melchor, G., García, S., Palma, D., Espinoza, L., Estrada, M., Rosado, O. (2008) Vinaza y composta de cachaza como fuente de nutrientes en caña de azúcar en un gleysol molico de Chiapas, México. Interciencia, Caracas, Venezuela, 7 pp.
  59. Minitab Inc (2010) Minitab Reference Manual PC version Release 17, State College, PA: Minitab, Inc.
  60. Mojica, F., González, N., León, S. (1994) La agricultura orgánica en Costa Rica. Pp. 45–60. In: Simposio Centroamericano sobre Agricultura Orgánica. UNED, San José, Costa Rica.
  61. Moran-Salazar, R. G., Sanchez-Lizarraga, A. L., Rodriguez-Campos, J., Davila-Vazquez, G., Marino-Marmolejo, E. N., Dendooven, L., Contreras-Ramos, S. M. (2016) Utilization of vinasses as soil amendment: consequences and perspectives. Springer Plus 5, (1).
  62. Mummey, D. L., Stahl, P. D., Buyer, J. S. (2002) Microbial biomarkers as an indicator of ecosystem recovery following surface mine reclamation. Applied Soil Ecology, 21, 251–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0929-1393(02)00090-2
  63. Neugebaver, B., Ahumada, M., Buch, R. (1992) Agricultura ecológicamente apropiada. Fundación Alemana para el Desarrollo Integral (DSE), Alemania, 185 pp.
  64. Norma Oficial Mexicana (2002) NOM-021-RECNAT. Especificaciones de fertilidad, salinidad y clasificación de suelos. Estudios, muestreo y análisis. Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, 73 pp.
  65. Olsen, S. R., Sommers, L. E. (1982) Phosphorus. Pp: 403–429. In: A. L. Page, D. R. Keeney, D. E. Baker, R. H. Miller, E. Roscoe, J. D. Rhoades (Eds.). Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Agronomy Monograph No. 9 (Second edition).
  66. Paoletti, M. G. (1999) The role of earthworms for assessment of sustainability and as bioindicators. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 74, 137–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(99)00034-1
  67. Pasqualin, L., Dionísio, J., Zawadneak, M., Marçal., C. (2012) Macrofauna edáfica em lavouras de cana-de-açúcar e mata no noroeste do Paraná – Brasil. Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, 33 (1), 7–18. https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2012v33n1p7
  68. Portilho, I., Borges, C. D., Costa, A. R., Salton, J. C., Mercante, F. M. (2011) Residues of sugarcane crop and its effects on the epigeic invertebrate fauna. Semina, 32 (3), 959–970. http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2011v32n3p959
  69. Prado, P., Jaramillo, L. (2006) Estudio de la factibilidad para el uso de la cachaza generada a partir del proceso de la caña de azúcar como abono. Tesis. Universidad de la Sabana, Colombia, 167 pp.
  70. Prado, R., Caione, G., Silva, C. (2013) Filter cake and vinasse as fertilizers contributing to conservation agriculture. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 581984, 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/581984
  71. Ramírez, M., Armbrecht, I., Enríquez, M. (2004) Importancia del manejo agrícola para biodiversidad: caso de las hormigas en caña de azúcar. Revista Colombiana de Entomología, 30 (1), 115–123.
  72. Ramírez, M., Chará, J., Pardo-Locarno, L. C., Montoya-Lerma, J., Armbrecht, I., Molina, C. H., Molina, E. J. (2012) Biodiversidad de hormigas hipógeas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) en agroecosistemas del Cerrito, Valle del Cauca. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 24 (15).
  73. Rodríguez, A. (1994) Validación de un Sistema de producción ecológica para cultivos de invernadero. Escuela Agroecologica. Caritas-Uruguay, Pronappa-FIDA, 17 pp.
  74. Rossetto, R., Dias, F. L., Vitti, A. C., Cantarella, H., Landell, M. G. (2008) Manejo conservacionista e reciclagem de nutrientes em cana-de-a?úcar tendo em vista a colheita mecánica. Informa?óes Agronomicas, 124, 8–13.
  75. Ruiz-Camacho, N. (2004) Mise au point d’un système de bioindication de la qualité du sol base sur l’étude des peuplements de macro-invertébrés. Thesis (PhD) Université Paris VI, Paris, 270 pp.
  76. Santos, L. A. O., Guevara, N. N., Fernandes, O. A. (2017) Diversity and abundance of edaphic arthropods associated with conventional and organic sugarcane crops in Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 100 (1), 134–144. https://doi.org/10.1653/024.100.0119
  77. Santos, G. G., Silveira, P. M., Marchäo, R. L., Becquer, T., Balbino, L. C. (2008) Macrofauna edáfica associada a plantas de cobertura em plantio direto em um Latossolo Vermelho do Cerrado. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília, 43 (1), 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2008000100015
  78. Schmidt, M. H., Roschewitz, I., Thies, C., Tscharntke, T. (2005) Differential effects of landscape and management on diversity and density of ground-dwelling farmland spiders. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 281–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01014.x
  79. Shukla, M. K., Lal, R., Ebinger, M. (2006) Determining soil quality indicators by factor analysis. Soil & Tillage Research, 87, 194–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2005.03.011
  80. Siqueira, G. M., Silva, E. F., Moreira, M. M., Santos, G. A., Silva, R. A. (2016) Diversity of soil macrofauna under sugarcane monoculture and two different natural vegetation types. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11 (30), 2669–2677. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2016.11083
  81. Statistical Institute of Belize (2015) Estimated mid-year population 2015 and merchandize trade, population and household. Book Green, London: Halcrow Group Limited, 48 pp.
  82. Stiling, P. (1999) Ecology: theories and applications. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 638 pp.
  83. Subbler, S., Edwars, C. A., Metzger, J. (1998) Comparing vermicompost and composts. BioCycle, 39, 63–66.
  84. Sugar Cane Production Committee (SCPC) (2015) Sugar Industry Control Board. Report of crop cycle 2014-2015. Orange Walk, Belize, 18 pp.
  85. Vandevivere, P., Ramírez, C. (1995) Control de calidad de abonos orgánicos por medio de bioensayos. Pp: 121–140. En: J. A. García, J. M. Najera (Eds.). Memoria Simposio Centroamericano de Agricultura Orgánica. San José, Costa Rica.
  86. Velasquez, E., Lavelle, P., Andrade, M. (2007) GISQ, a multifunctional indicator of soil quality. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39 (12), 3066–3080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.06.013
  87. Williams, G. (1987) Techniques and fieldwork in ecology. Bell-Hyman, Great Britain, 160 pp.
  88. WRB (2014) International Soil Classification System for naming soils and creating legends for soil map. World Soil Resources Report 106, Rome, 192 pp.