Luna Camico, Pacheco Cordeiro, and Andrade de Lima: Description of the male of the coprophagous moth fly Psychoda serraorobonensis Bravo, Cordeiro & Chagas, 2006 (Diptera, Psychodidae)



Introduction

Psychodidae comprises 533 valid species in Brazil, where Psychoda Latreille, 1796 is one of the most diverse genera, with 27 registered species (Shimabukuro et al., 2018), distributed from North to South of the Country. The sexual association in Psychoda is difficult due to the high diversity on this genus, the high rate of sympatric species, and the resemblance of closely related species (Cordeiro et al., 2011). For these reasons, several species have been described based on only one sex. In Latin America and the Caribbean region, for example, more than half of the species are known by one sex only (Bravo et al., 2006; Cordeiro et al., 2011). Often the authors have chosen to base their descriptions on females, as they are frequently more abundant in traps and also exhibit conspicuous specific diagnostic characters in the terminalia (Quate, 1996; Cordeiro et al., 2011). The present study provides the description of the male of Psychoda serraorobonensis, as well as a map with the known distribution of this species.

Material and methods

Specimens studied herein were collected at Reserva Ducke, located at km 26 of the Manaus-Itacoatiara road. They were collected with a bovine faeces bait, made of a sample of 1.5cm3 of cow dung, exposed in the field for five days. The material was brought to the laboratory and kept in plastic cups covered with 'saran wrap' at room temperature until the emergence of adults. The adults were preserved in 70% ethanol and identified using a stereomicroscope. Females are preserved in 70% etanol and the male was mounted on a permanent slide with Canada Balsam, following the procedure of Bravo (1996).

The terminology follows the proposal of Cummig & Wood (2009) with the specific term gonocoxal apodeme proposed by Quate & Brown (2004). A geographic distribution map of the species was created using Websoftware Simple Mappr.

Results

Psychoda serraorobonensis Bravo, Cordeiro & Chagas (Figs. 1-8)

Figures 1-3

Psychoda serraorobonensis: ♂ 1. Head in anterior view; 2. Head in posterior view; 3. Flagellomeres 9-13 [Scale 0,1 mm (1,2) 0,05 mm (3)].

2448-8445-azm-34-e3412101-gf1.jpg

Figures 4-8

Psychoda serraorobonensis: ♂ 4. Wing; 5. Gonostyli; 6. Surstyli; 7. Terminalia in dorsal view; 8. Aedeagus [Scale 0,2 mm (5) 0,1 mm (7) 0,05 mm (5,6,8)].

2448-8445-azm-34-e3412101-gf2.jpg

Psychoda serraorobonensisBravo, Cordeiro & Chagas, 2006: 10. Type-locality: Brazil, Bahia, Serra do Orobó, holotype female (MZUEFS). Add. Ref.: Bravo, 2007:327 (Citation); Cordeiro, Bravo & Carvalho, 2011:15 (Record).

Examined material. 1 ♂, 3 ♀ BRASIL, Amazonas, [Manaus], Reserva Ducke, 2°56'8.84"S; 59°57'43.24"O, xii.2016, fezes bovina, col. D. Andrade (INPA).

Diagnosis. Eyes separated by 1.0 (male) or 1.5-2.0 (female) facet diameters; antenna with 14 flagellomeres, the 3 apical subequal are reduced in size, 11th and 12th fused, 14th separated and spherical; ascoids Y-shaped; wing with medial fork incomplete; female subgenital plate pilose on distal half and with lateral margins convex; male terminalia with gonostyle coniform with a group of alveoli at base and short setae sparsealy distributed, aedeagus asymmetrical, bifid with left branch little longer and wider in dorsal view, one short sinuous paramere articulat with aedeagus and a small projection of the hypandrium, gonocoxal apodeme strongly sclerotized, pilose ventrally and with rounded distal margin.

Description. Adult male. Head: Eye bridge with four facet rows (Fig. 1); Eyes separated by a distance of 1.0 facet diameter (Fig. 1); Scape subcylindrical, pedicel spherical, flagellomeres 1-11 nodiform, 11th and 12th fused, 12th-13th reduced (14th lost, antenna broken), ascoids Y-shaped, palpal formula: 1,0:1,1:1,1:- (apical segment lost, palpus broken), labellum with three apical digitiform setae (‘teeth’).

Wing: radial fork complete, M2 close but not linked to M1 (Fig. 4). Terminalia (Figs. 7 and 8): hypandrium stripe-like with a small triangular posterior projection on one side, gonocoxites with a group of alveoli on lateral margin, gonostyli little longer than gonocoxite, coniform, with acute apex, a group of alveoli at base and short sparsely distributed setae on apical 2/3; gonocoxal apodeme strongly sclerotized, pilose ventrally and with rounded distal margin; aedeagus bifid, left branch little longer and wider in dorsal view, one short sinuous paramere articulates with aedeagus and ends on the small projection of the hipandrium; epandrium as long as wide, pilose, surstyli coniform, 1.5X the length of gonostyle, with one tenaculum at apex. Epiproct and hypoproct broadly oval, pilose. Female. Described by Bravo, Cordeiro & Chagas (2006).

Distribution (Fig. 9). Brazil (States of Amazonas, Bahia, São Paulo and Paraná) (Bravo et al., 2006; Cordeiro et al., 2011).

Figure 9

Distribution of Psychoda serraorobonensis.

2448-8445-azm-34-e3412101-gf3.jpg

Comments. We are confident of the sexual association as not only the morphology of adults match, but also all adults emerged from a single sample of faeces. The morphology of all larvae and larvae exuviae found on the faeces are also identical, indicating there was a single species on that sample. Description of immatures are in preparation on a paper comprising other immatures of coprophagous Psychodini. P. serraorobonensis appears to have a wide distribution in Brazil.

Acknowledgements

We thank the National Research Institute of the Amazon, for the support designed the research. We thank the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) for the support provided.

References cited

1 

Bravo, F. (1996) Análise Filogenética dos Psychodidae (Diptera, Psychodomorpha), com ênfase nos Psychodinae e Trichomyiinae. Tese de Doutorado - Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, 118 pp.

F. Bravo 1996Análise Filogenética dos Psychodidae (Diptera, Psychodomorpha), com ênfase nos Psychodinae e TrichomyiinaeDoutoradoSetor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do ParanáCuritiba118

2 

Bravo, F., Cordeiro, D., Chagas, C. (2006) Two new species and new records of Psychoda Latreille (Diptera, Psychodidae, Psychodinae) from Brazil, with comments on supraspecific classification of the genus and an actualized list of Latin American and Caribbean islands species. Zootaxa, 1298, 1-15.

F. Bravo D. Cordeiro C. Chagas 2006Two new species and new records of Psychoda Latreille (Diptera, Psychodidae, Psychodinae) from Brazil, with comments on supraspecific classification of the genus and an actualized list of Latin American and Caribbean islands speciesZootaxa1298115

3 

Cordeiro, D., Bravo, F., de Carvalho, C. J. B. (2011) Taxonomy of Brazilian Psychoda Latreille, 1796 (Diptera, Psychodidae) with the description of thirteen new species. Zootaxa, 3101, 1-37.

D. Cordeiro F. Bravo C. J. B. de Carvalho 2011Taxonomy of Brazilian Psychoda Latreille, 1796 (Diptera, Psychodidae) with the description of thirteen new speciesZootaxa3101137

4 

Cumming, J. M., Wood, D. M. (2009) Adult morphology and terminology [Chapter] 2. In: Brown, B. V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J. M.; Wood, D. M.; Woodley, N. E. , Zumbado, M. A. (Eds.): Manual of Central American Diptera, Volume 1, NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, p. 9-50.

J. M. Cumming D. M. Wood 2009Adult morphology and terminology[Chapter] 2 B. V. Brown A. Borkent J. M. Cumming D. M. Wood N. E. Woodley M. A. Zumbado Manual of Central American Diptera1NRC Research PressOttawa, Ontario, Canada950

5 

Quate, L. W. (1996) Preliminary taxonomic of Costa Rica: Psychodidae (Diptera), exclusive of Plebotominae. Revista de Biología Tropical, 44 (Supplement 1), 1-81.

L. W. Quate 1996Preliminary taxonomic of Costa Rica: Psychodidae (Diptera), exclusive of PlebotominaeRevista de Biología Tropical441181

6 

Quate, L. W., Brown, B. V. (2004) Revision of Neotropical Setomimini (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae). Publications of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Contributions in Science, 500, 1-117.

L. W. Quate B. V. Brown 2004Revision of Neotropical Setomimini (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae)Publications of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Contributions in Science5001117

7 

Shimabukuro, P. H. F., Andrade, A. J., Galati, E. A. B., Cordeiro, D. P., Bravo, F. (2018) Psychodidae in Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil. PNUD. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobrasil/16799 (acesso em: 31 Jul. 2018).

P. H. F. Shimabukuro A. J. Andrade E. A. B. Galati D. P. Cordeiro F. Bravo 2018Psychodidae in Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil. PNUDDisponível em: http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobrasil/16799 31 Jul. 2018



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