Factores abióticos y bióticos determinantes para la presencia de Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis en anfibios mexicanos

Luis Manuel García Feria, Dulce María Brousset, Roberto Arnulfo Cervantes Olivares

Resumen


Evaluamos la presencia de Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) en 13 especies de anfibios mexicanos asociada a factores abióticos y bióticos como un modelo de distribución de especies mediante árboles de clasificación y regresión (CART). El hongo quítrido fue diagnosticado a partir de hisopados cutáneos de anfibios adultos, y frotis orales de renacuajos por medio de PCR anidada para un fragmento de rRNA de 300 pb. Los especímenes fueron muestreados en siete tipos de vegetación durante las temporadas seca y lluviosa. El hongo quítrido se detectó por primera vez en Charadrayla taeniopus y Leptodactylus fragilis, especies en las que no se había registrado previamente; también se confirmó su presencia en anfibios de la selva alta perennifolia del sureste de México. De acuerdo con los CART, las dos variables más importantes para la ocurrencia de Bd son la especie del hospedero y la precipitación, pero su combinación con otras variables como el estado de desarrollo, la temperatura ambiental, la temporada climática, el tipo de vegetación y altos índices de vida acuática influyen en la presencia del hongo quítrido. Además, se obtuvo que los renacuajos tienen 1.52 veces más prevalencia de Bd que los adultos, y los renacuajos de dos especies de anfibios estudiadas son potencialmente reservorios. Aunque ningún anfibio mostró signos clínicos de quitridiomicosis, nuestros hallazgos indican que la presencia y la persistencia de Bd pueden estar relacionadas con la susceptibilidad o resistencia de las especies y la interacción de diversos factores abióticos y bióticos.


Palabras clave


Estacionalidad; PCR anidada; renacuajos; índice de vida acuática; modelo de distribución de especies; CART

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21829/azm.2019.3502066

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