El endemismo: diferenciación del término, métodos y aplicaciones

Elkin A. Noguera-Urbano

Resumen


El endemismo es un concepto comúnmente usado para identificar a taxones nativos o grupos biológicos con área de distribución restringida. Sin embargo, el endemismo tiene diferentes interpretaciones de acuerdo a la aproximación usada para los análisis biogeográficos (ecológico o histórico). Los múltiples usos del endemismo han llevado a proponer otros conceptos relacionados con las áreas geográficas ocupadas por los taxones endémicos (área endémica, área de endemismo, centro de endemismo). En algunos casos los resultados de las técnicas y protocolos usados para evaluar el endemismo son malinterpretados, ya que en la literatura los tres términos son usados como sinónimos. En este orden de ideas, esta revisión discute el concepto de endemismo y su aplicación en múltiples campos del conocimiento. Además, se comparan y discuten las técnicas y protocolos usados para evaluar el endemismo. Se concluye que es necesario el uso de un concepto unificado del endemismo, lo cual podría facilitar su interpretación tanto en ecología como en conservación y biogeografía.


Palabras clave


Biogeografía; Conservación; distribución restringida; endémico; Ecología

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21829/azm.2017.3311016

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